One of the first researchers to examine breathing tracings for detecting deception. He proposed that a ratio created by the time need to inhale divided by the time to exhale produced a ratio that changed during deception. Though Italian, Benussi did most of his work in Austria at the University of Graz. Benussi’s approach was very different from what is sometimes taught in polygraph schools, and subsequent researchers did not find the same degree of accuracy that Benussi reported. See: Benussi (1914); Landis & Wiley (1926).