Methods used to detect and neutralize those efforts an examinee has engaged in while trying to defeat the PDD examination. For example, if a PDD examiner concluded from an examinee’s behavior that the examinee had tried to dissociate during testing, he could insist that the examinee respond to the test questions with both a key word and the answer, thus ensuring attention to the content of each question. Lynn Marcy is credited with distinguishing counter-countermeasures (reactive) from anti-countermeasures (proactive).