Generally, methods used to mislead an observer. In polygraph research it has been labeled as actions taken by the examinee to influence the physiological responses to produce a truthful test outcome. There are several typologies for countermeasures, depending on the definition used. Under some circumstances polygraph countermeasures have been found to be effective, such as when an examinee receives special training and feedback. Most spontaneous attempts are crude and ineffective. Various methods have been devised by PDD practitioners to deter and detect countermeasures. See Honts (1987); Krapohl (1996).