Deception test procedure developed by William Marston before 1915. Marston’s instrumentation was a standard sphygmomanometer that he used to take intermittent systolic blood pressure measurements during questioning on relevant and irrelevant topics. He plotted these measurements by hand, creating a curve that was interpreted for assessing deception. In 1923 Marston attempted to have the results of his deception test entered into evidence in a murder trial in Washington, DC. The Frye case, which was the first to consider deception tests, established the precedent for exclusion of “lie detector” results. The discontinuous blood pressure method did not enjoy widespread field acceptance, and there are no reports of its use after the 1930s. In the 1920s William Marston included a cardio-pneumo polygraph to augment his discontinuous blood pressure method. In practice, Marston and his wife, Elizabeth, would either ask the examinations questions or take the blood pressure measurements, while Olive Richard, an assistant, operated the equipment. If a stenographer were present, there were four participants in the administration of the examination in addition to the examinee. While William Marston was usually the examiner, Elizabeth Marston and Olive Richard did conduct examinations on occasion without him, making them the first women in this field. Given the great methodological and instrumentation differences, Marston discontinuous blood pressure method is not truly in the lineage of modern polygraphy, though it is frequently included in history lessons at polygraph schools. See: Marston (1917; 1938).