The Empirical Scoring System (ESS) is an evidence-based numerical scoring model for manual test data analysis (TDA) of PDD test data from examinations conducted using comparison question test (CQT) formats. The ESS includes a description of the physiological data features that are correlated with truth and deception, mathematical transformation methods for assigning and aggregating numerical scores, decision rules for the classification of numerical scores as indicative of truthfulness or deception, and numerical cut scores that define the a priori thresholds of statistical significance. ESS cut scores are based on normative data that allow for the calculation of the probability of an erroneous test result. Thus, the ESS allows for the selection of statistically optimal cut scores based on operational needs for the resolution and precision of the test result. See Blalock, Cushman & Nelson, (2009); Handler, Nelson & Blalock (2008); Nelson, Krapohl & Handler (2008).