Probable-lie comparison questions that do not overlap the event covered by the relevant issue questions. There is a school of thought that examinees may confuse the relevant questions with the comparison questions unless these two types of questions are designed to avoid any degree of overlap. This is accomplished by constructing comparison questions that are different from the relevant issue by time period, location, or type of activity. Although exclusive comparison questions have better face validity over non-exclusive comparison questions, research has supported the non-exclusionary version. See: Amsel (1999); Podlesny & Raskin (1978); Horvath (1988); Horvath & Palmatier (2008).