A test published by Dr. David Lykken and is based on a concealed information paradigm. While similar tests are described in the literature as early as 1904 (Wertheimer & Klein), and Hugo Munsterberg outlines a comparable approach in his 1908 book On the Witness Stand, Lykken formalized the procedures and advocated its use in place of the CQT. Recent writers have renamed this method the Concealed Information Test (CIT). See: Lykken (1959); Verschuere, Ben-Shakhar & Meijer (2011).