Preventative measures used by PDD examiners to block or neutralize the countermeasure efforts of examinees. For example, if the aim were to be to preclude an examinee from pressing his toes against the floor during testing, an anti-countermeasure might include elevating the examinee’s feet from the floor so that this strategy cannot be acted upon. Lynn Marcy is credited with making the distinction between anti-countermeasures (proactive) and the counter-countermeasures (reactive).