The Integrated Zone Comparison Technique (IZCT) was developed in 1987 by Nathan J. Gordon, William Waid, and Philip Cochetti at the Academy for Scientific Investigative Training. Much of the design of the IZCT was based on formatting principles from the Backster Zone Comparison Technique although there are significant differences. Developers of the IZCT allow the examiner the flexibility to use the same test structure for both single-issue and multiple-issue cases. The IZCT is unique in that it uses a rank ordering system of analysis, called the Horizontal Scoring System. Also, unlike other techniques, the first chart is conducted as a silent answer test, and in the third chart there is a reversal of the positions of comparison-relevant questions to relevant-comparisons. See: Gordon, Fleisher, Morsie, Habib, & Salah (2000); Nelson & Handler (2011).