Verbal shorthand currently used by some PDD examiners to signify an irrelevant question in Relevant/Irrelevant and comparison question test formats. Much earlier (1922) John Larson referred to “norms” as individuals who were possible-but-unlikely suspects to a crime whom he added to his list of persons to be tested so he could account for variables such as anger, indignation, and fright that he could expect from innocent-but-likely suspects he would be testing.