Family of polygraph test formats in which traditional lie comparison questions are not employed. While originally used in criminal testing, RI tests currently are more often found in multiple-issue screening applications. The RI test can trace its roots to word association tests employed in the early 1900s, and these word tests were later used occasionally during the monitoring of electrodermal activity. The RI was used extensively by pioneers John Larson and Leonarde Keeler in the 1920s through the 1940s, and it is still in use today. Among the screening techniques that have undergone validity research, the RI has been shown to have poorer validity and reliability than any of the more modern approaches.